Friday, January 9, 2015

10 LIVING RECOGNIZED GENIUSES

"Glory to God in the hands of labor" - Leonardo da Vinci, and was undoubtedly right, but apart from hard work and sometimes need a little talent. Who knows what would have gone through the history of mankind, not to be born at least one of them - the genius that transformed the world. Here are just some of the great living today.

1. Tim Berners-Lee - "spider" Weaving the World Wide Web

10 living recognized geniuses
British scientist and inventor Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee is headed by chance World Wide Web Consortium - in fact, he invented the Internet, but also introduced a number of other developments in the field of information technology.

Working back in 1989, the project internal document sharing ENQUIRE for CERS (European Organization for Nuclear Research), Timothy came to establish a global hypertext project, approved and later known as World Wide Web - the World Wide Web. Served as the basis for a system of hypertext documents, interconnected by hyperlinks - all this made ​​it possible to develop revolutionary Berners-Lee: HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), the identifier URI (and its variant - URL), the language of HTML. He created the world's first web server «httpd» and the world's first website at http://info.cern.ch , appeared on August 6, 1991 light-year (now it can be found in the archive of the Internet). Brilliant Briton also wrote the first web browser to your computer NeXT.
In 1994, the year T Berners-Lee at the Laboratory of Computer Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology founded the World Wide Web Consortium, his head and he is now: The consortium is developing Internet standards.
Who is the creator of the Internet wants to go even further: he hopes to create a semantic web - a wrapper around the World, which will raise the interaction of computers around the world on quite an incredible level. The idea is that the machine will have access to clearly structured information that is available to any client applications, with does not matter what programming language they are written: computers can communicate directly, without the mediation of a man - perhaps this will lead to the creation of the World Artificial Intelligence.

2. George Soros, financial Robin Hood

10 living recognized geniuses
This is one of the most controversial figures on the world economic stage: some call it financial schemers and speculators, while others ascribe brilliant financial flair.
George Soros 'done' "Black Wednesday" - September 16, 1992, the year when there was a "collapse" of the British pound in the currency market. It was rumored that he had the crash and made a few years buying pounds, and then exchange them for the German mark on speculative rate: pound collapsed and George using reserve funds for one day earned on its purchase variously estimated $ 1-1, 5 billion. This legend is not quite correct: the very "lucky" only admitted that having shares at $ 7 billion, bluffing, bringing the amount of transactions to $ 10 billion - who does not risk, that, you know ...
Scandalously-known investor has developed a "theory of reflexivity stock markets", stating that the securities are bought according to the expectations of their future value, and expectations - a delicate thing, it is subject to information attacks by the financial media and destabilizing market speculators.
The grandiose confusing financial activities of George Soros is one definitely bright side - back in 1979, he created the US Charitable Foundation "Open Society". In 1988, a unit of the Fund appeared even in the Soviet Union, but because of the Soviet companions fund "Cultural initiative" quickly covered. In 1995, in Russia it is very "open society", which is due to the program "University centers Internet» in Russia having 33 Internet center. However, in 2003, Soros has officially turned its charitable activities in Russia.

3. Matt Groening, author of the cartoon universe of "The Simpsons" and "Futurama"

10 living recognized geniuses
Known worldwide multiplier insists that his name is pronounced Groening - quirks of genius, nothing can be done: this is shown in his appearance in "The Simpsons", where the surname pronounced that way.
Matthew from school showed the ability to journalism and animation, and after arriving in Los Angeles, he started drawing comics, describing how he lives in a big city.
Impressions of Los Angeles, apparently, were not very good, because comics called "Life in Hell": Matt had to work the seller records, journalist, courier and even chauffeur director.
In 1978, avant-garde comics magazine published «Wet Magazine», and in 1980 - already the newspaper «Los-Angeles Reader». Groening later invited to conduct in her column about Rock and roll, but he wrote it, basically, that saw the day, remembering childhood, shared his thoughts on life - in short, he was fired.
In the late 1980s, Groening created a series of posters for «Apple» with their comic book characters, of course.
In 1985, he was approached by producer James L. Brooks, Matt drew to a small sketch cartoon clips for "The Tracey Ullman Show," but Groening thought of something else: the Simpsons little family living at Evergreen Walk, 742, Springfield.

4. Nelson Mandela, South Africa has lifted off its knees

10 living recognized geniuses
Life Mandela - a vivid example of a non-violent, but they are not less stubborn and difficult struggle: already in the first year University of Fort Hare (only while the higher education institution in South Africa where black can learn), he took part in the boycott policy of the Board of Fort Hare and refused to take a seat in the Executive Board of the student, and then left the university. While studying law at the University of the Witwatersrand, Mandela met future collaborators to fight apartheid policy - Harry Schwartz and Joe Slovo (the latter then takes place in the government Mandela).
In 1940, Nelson became interested in the liberal-radical ideas, became interested in political life and to participate in the protests, and in 1948 he was elected secretary of the Youth League of the African National Congress (ANC) - so it started climbing the ladder of political career.
Political way Nelson Mandela was long and thorny: the years of struggle (including sabotage and preparation of this subversive war against the government of South Africa) with the oppression of black people, the court, and finally - 27 years in prison. Having in 1990, freedom, Mandela once again became the leader of the ANC, the former had already legal political party, and in 1993 received the Nobel Peace Prize. The first black president of South Africa, he became by election in 1994, and remained in that post until 1999..

5. Frederick Sanger, twice Nobel chemist

10 living recognized geniuses
In his youth Sanger wanted to follow in the footsteps of his father (who was a doctor), but later became interested in biochemistry and has not lost. Many years later he wrote: "It seemed to me that this was the way to a real understanding of living matter and to develop a scientific basis for solving many problems facing medicine."
The world's only two-time winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, with Sanger 1940s studied the structure and properties of amino acids of insulin in 1955 for the first time provided a detailed description of the insulin molecule, thus initiating the investigation of the molecular structure of proteins - this was his first "Nobelevka "has found a hero in 1958. Studies have made possible the production of Sanger artificial insulin and other hormones.
Many years of work on deciphering the DNA allowed chemist in 1973 to create an analytical method of installation sequences of nucleotide chains - this development in 1980, again made him a Nobel laureate with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert.
Now retired from Sanger Affairs and enjoy a quiet family life in Cambridge with his wife Margaret Joan Howe (marriage registered in 1940), have three children.

6. Dario Fo, Nobel Prize Theatre

10 living recognized geniuses
About this person, you can still tell his quotes, but better leave you an opportunity to discover his work, if you are unfamiliar with it. Only in a few words: a fountain witty political and religious satire, hypocrisy, buffoonery and farce - a fountain, which, contrary to the known expression Prutkov does not want to shut up.
Dario Fo - an Italian film director, playwright and actor, and the tireless work of undoubted genius that made him the greatest figure theater in Europe over the past half-century. The main motive of his work has always been mocking power - whether political, ecclesiastical, it does not matter.
Dario still a student began writing sketches, monologues, and short stories. Since 1950 Fo in films, creates scripts and plays and tours with his own theater group, actively showing his leftist political views.
In 1997, Dario Fo received the Nobel Prize for Literature, in his diploma reads: "for what inheriting medieval jesters, boldly criticizing the government and protects the dignity of the oppressed." He joked about it: "I also write novels, but they do not show anyone."
"Artist at gunpoint in power and authority under the gun of the artist", "theater, literature, visual arts, who do not speak for my time, no value" - all this Dario Fo.

7. Stephen Hawking, professor of mathematics without mathematical education

10 living recognized geniuses
Hawking is known for his studies of the structure of black holes and work on quantum gravity: in 1975, he created the theory of "evaporation" of black holes - this phenomenon is called "Hawking radiation".Area of ​​Interest famous theoretical physicist - the whole universe, he has published several popular science books on its birth and development, interaction of space and time, superstring theory, and many other entertaining problems of modern physics and cosmology.
In its first year of teaching mathematics at Oxford, has not received a mathematical education Hawking read a textbook, just two weeks ahead of their students.
In 2003, he gave an interview in a few pessimistic forecast of human development: according to him, we have to relocation to other planets, because the world will be dominated by viruses.
Back in 1960 Stephen began to show signs of central nervous system diseases, which later led him to almost complete paralysis of the limbs - since he moved in a special chair, which is controlled by a sensor at some preserved mobility muscles. In communicating with people he helps the computer and voice synthesizer that friends gave him in 1985, the year.
Serious illness did not break character of the great scientist - he lives interesting, active and what is called a full life.

8. Philip Glass, large minimalist

10 living recognized geniuses
American composer, whose work is rooted in the Indian musical tradition - we can say that Philip absorbed music with his mother's milk, his father owned a music store. Fateful trip became a 17-year old boy in Paris - there begins his ascent to the heights of musical Olympus.
Glass several years traveled to India, where he met with the 14-year-old Dalai Lama, and has since been a staunch supporter of autonomy for Tibet. Glass genius was influenced by Bach, Mozart, the French avant-garde and the legendary Indian musician Ravi Shankar.
The main thing in the work of the composer - the rhythm, his melodies are simple, but expressive, his persistently called minimalist, but he denies from minimalism.
International fame in 1984 brought Glass cooperation with director Godfrey Reggio in creating documentaries in these scenes music - no background and no auxiliary visual tool, it is - the protagonist.Prior to this, the most famous work of Philip remained opera "Einstein on the Beach."
In the same 1984 Glass wrote the music for the opening ceremony of the Olympic Games in Los Angeles, his other famous works - music for the films "Candyman," "The Truman Show" and "The Illusionist."
When Glass was asked: "What kind of music should hear everyone?", He replied: "The music of his own heart."

9. Grigory Perelman, a genius in isolation

10 living recognized geniuses
Our ingenious countryman back in 1990 galvanized the international scientific community for its sensational works on geometry, mathematics and physics, but a truly worldwide fame brought him two proofs of the Poincaré conjecture, one of the so-called "Puzzles Millennium", and the rejection of well-deserved rewards and money remuneration.
Grigory Yakovlevich - surprisingly modest and unpretentious man in life: having arrived in the early 1990s in the US, he surprised US counterparts almost ascetic way of life and a skeptical attitude to the scientific community. His statement perfectly describes the "aliens are not considered those who violate ethical standards in science. People like me - that's what is in isolation. "
One mathematician asked to provide to the Committee on Employment CV (resume) and recommendations on what Perelman said sharply: "If they know my work, they do not need my CV if they need my CV - they do not know my work."
In 2005, Grigory Perelman retired from the St. Petersburg branch of the Steklov Institute of Mathematics, virtually ceased contacts with colleagues and lives with his mother, leading a rather secluded life.

10. Andrew Wiles, dreamy mathematician

10 living recognized geniuses
This professor of mathematics at Princeton University proved the Great Fermat's theorem, on which more than one generation of scientists beat hundreds of years.
Even as a child, Andrew learned of the existence of mathematical theorems and immediately began to look for a solution, picking up a school textbook. He found it 30 years later after the proof of another scientist Ken Ribet, communication theorem Japanese mathematicians Taniyama and Shimura with Fermat's Last Theorem. In contrast to the more skeptical colleagues Wiles immediately realized - this is it, and seven years later put an end to the proof.
Very dramatic evidence of this process left: completing the work in 1993, the year, Wiles literally during a public performance with the sensation shook the scientific world discovers in the decision space - the basis of his evidence falls apart before our eyes. Two months spent on progressive search error (solution of occupied 130 printed pages), yet almost half a year of hard work is carried out to address the gaps - nothing comes out, the scientific world zataёnno waiting for the result, but at the same time gloating.And then September 19, 1994-the year in Wiles happened inspiration - was able to complete the proof.

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