Thursday, November 6, 2014

The most unusual basilica of Rome


Full name of the most unusual of the basilica of Rome, located in Republic Square, Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri. Basilica dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the angels and martyrs. It is located on the site of the ancient ruins of the Diocletian Baths . And its uniqueness is that it reunited the Christian faith, the grandeur of ancient Rome and the innovation of the Renaissance. Colossal baths were built literally on the bones of thousands of slaves and the first Christian martyr, who worked not only in construction but in marble and sand pits. Title basilica preserves the memory of unknown martyrs who died in its construction.
The history of the church - is the story of faith simple Sicilian monk Antonio del Duca, who was just a choirmaster. Once Antonio saw an old icon of the seven angels. While the cult of the "Seven Angels" have not yet been recognized by the Roman church. Monk del Duca was so impressed with the power coming from the icon that he decided to follow in Rome to make known worldwide revelation of "the seven angels". Antonio wrote the liturgy to "Mass of the Seven Angels" and sent it to Cardinal del Monte, the uncle of the future Pope Julius III. They managed to achieve recognition of the cult of the "Seven Angels" at the Vatican. But after the death of his patron in 1533 by Antonio del Duca was forced to return to Sicily. After eight years of a Sicilian monk again went to Rome, where he became chaplain of the church of Santa Maria di Loreto in the Forum of Trajan.
One day, in the summer of 1541 at Antonio del Duca was another divine revelation: light, whiter than the snow itself, starting from the ruins Baths of Diocletian, and the center of this divine radiance monk saw the images of the seven saints. This vision is interpreted as a monk blessing holy martyrs to build a temple in honor of the seven angels, namely in terms. Antonio went to the ruins and on the seven pillars tepidarium (dry steam room in the Roman Baths) wrote seven major names of the Angels of God. From that moment the monk del Duca put all his strength to get permission to build a church in Rome in honor of the seven martyrs and the seven angels, but his idea was not supported by the Pope Paul III.
To prove the necessity and importance of the Vatican building a church, Antonio del Duca in 1543 went to Venice, where he ordered a copy of the mosaics of the Cathedral of St. Mark, depicts the Virgin Mary surrounded by seven angels. Del Duca was hoping to take advantage of the eternal rivalry of Rome and Venice, and again appealed to the Pope with the proposal to build a church in honor of the Seven Angels and the Martyrs; and establishment under its auspices shelter for orphans. But this time Paul III remained adamant.
Antonio had to wait another 7 years old when the papacy ascend Pope Julius III del Monte. And in 1550, the Pope ordered the vicar of Rome, Monsignor Filippo Archinto signed a decree on the coverage of the church in Rome in honor of St. Mary of the Seven Angels and the Seven Martyrs. But the writing of the decree, and this time did not mean his execution. Nephews of Pope Paul III turned the Baths of Diocletian in his hunting place of fun and horse riding. And only with the advent to the throne of Pius IV (Medici) papal bull of 27 July 1561 was ordered to begin construction of the Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri in the Baths of Diocletian in Rome. 45 years of true faith and struggle with doubts and intrigue took the monk Antonio del Duca to fulfill the angelic revelation. 1. Drafting of the church Pope instructed the 86-year-old Michelangelo. Ingenious master decided to incorporate into the existing facade of the Cathedral of the term. But Michelangelo died in 1564, and work continued Neapolitan architect Luigi Vanvitelli (1700-1773).Construction completed in 1749. Inside the church is a huge covered area, shaped like the Greek (equilateral) cross. After 1700 the church was rebuilt several times. In the early XX century gingerbread facade, created by Vanvitelli, broken, restoring the idea of Michelangelo Portal - a simple brick wall. And now is the part of the facade eksedry caldarium (room in the baths with hot water). Floor of the building was raised by 2 meters to prevent infiltration of groundwater. The facade of the basilica, the author of the bronze doors contemporary Polish sculptor Igor Mitoraj. On one door - the scene of the Annunciation, the second - the Resurrection. Bronze doors were installed February 28, 2006 to replace the outdated wood. 2. The central part of the basilica is located in the former tepidarium (warm room with bath) Baths of Diocletian. Eight massive columns supporting the three cross-shaped roof of the Basilica - from the ancient term, the other eight are added during the restoration of the XVIII century, but they are only an imitation of the antique - stucco. Sex in the XVIII century, created by Giuseppe Barbieri. The central nave of the basilica. On each side of the passage are angels with bowls of holy water, the sculptor Giovanni Battista Rossi, a pupil of Bernini. Above right angel - statue of St. Bruno, the founder of the Order of the Carthusians, the French sculptor Jean-Antoine Houdon, 1766-1768. Pope Clement XIV, when he saw the statue said she was so lively that the plot would be if it was not prohibited (Cartesians made ​​a vow of silence) 3. Michelangelo's genius entered the church in ruins term, retaining their basic premises. Lobby corresponds caldarium term. Transept (transept cruciform in plan churches, crosses the main nave at right angles) is a dominant part of the basilica. It is located on the former site of the tepidarium. Michelangelo tried to preserve and use the term space to showcase their grandeur. The length of the transept is more than 90 m and a width of 27 m. The project Michelangelo provided at each end of the transept large cubic space, which now housed the chapel. The height of the central nave is 29 meters. The central nave is decorated with eight paintings, which were originally located in the old St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, and were moved here in the XVIII century. 4. In the right nave of the tomb of General Armando Diaz, the hero of the First World War, made ​​by Antonio Munoz in 1920. The sarcophagus of red Aswan granite is in the floor behind the fence. And the monument with the inscription, decorated with two slabs of green marble with African bronze ornaments on the wall above the grave. Above the monument - a picture of Francesco Mancini, depicting Saint Peter miraculous healing the leper. Presumably, she was first in the palace of the Quirinal. Mosaic copy of this painting was done for St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City. Close to the left - the painting "Sermon of St. Jerome" Girolamo Mutsiano, the end of the XVI century. The painting remained unfinished after the artist's death in 1592, so the background fulfilled Paul Bril. The painting was created for the altar of St. Jerome in the Vatican, but it was moved into the basilica. To the right in the photo - over fences in deepening grave Armando Diaz - general who fought on the Italian front in World War 5. The unusual appearance of the church adds an abundance of internal decoration. Ornaments, columns, sculptures and even paintings - all this makes the church a temple of art. The decor of the basilica - the left of the central nave 6. The decor in the left aisle of the basilica on the opposite wall 7. Capella right Clemente Orlandi created in 1746 and dedicated to the Carthusian monk Albergati who was beatified by Pope Benedict XIV in 1744. The altar of the chapel created Hercule Graziani in 1746, in the center - the picture "Miracle Blessed Niccolo Albergati." Tomb of Admiral Thaon di Revel (left), nicknamed Duke seas, created by Pietro Canonica in 1948. Sarcophagus of yellow marble shaped like a ship. Over the grave - Francesco Trevisani painting "Baptism by water", XVIII century. Chapel Blessed Niccolo Albergati 8. Tomb of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando was created in 1935 by the sculptor Pietro Canonica. Orlando - politician, prime minister, head of the Italian delegation at the negotiations after the First World War. In Italy it is called "President of Victory." Over the grave - the picture Trevisani "baptism of desire". In Catholicism it is assumed that those who died before they were baptized, are considered baptized by desire Communion. 9. On both sides of the altar of the right aisle - German sculptor of the statue of Frederick Petriha created in 1834 - the angels of peace and justice. 10. In the right nave placed Byzantine icons. 11. The inscription on the floor right in front of the nave. 12. Left Chapel of St. Bruno, the founder of the Carthusian Order, built by Jubilee 1700, a draft Carlo Maratta. Altar altered from early Francesco Fontana in 1864. Above the altar - the picture Giovanni Odatstsi "Marian apparition to Saint Bruno," written by 1700. Grand organ (5400 silver pipes) created Barthelemy Formentelli in 1990, has 77 registers, often used in concerts. Was presented as a gift to Pope John Paul II on the occasion of the city of Rome Jubilee 2000. Housing Authority of solid cherry wood has a height of 12 meters and a length of 11 meters. The chapel of St. Bruno, left - the body13. Painting Francesco Trevisani "Baptism of blood" reflects the Catholic idea that unbaptized person who dies for the faith, becoming baptized through his shed blood. At the sides of the painting sculpture "Meditation" (1874) and "The Prayer" (1875) - copies of articles standing at the entrance to the cemetery of St. Lawrence 14. 15. Inside the basilica is decorated with antique columns, classic ornaments, sculptures and paintings, including works by French artists of the XVII-XVIII centuries. 16. 17. 18. 19. On the floor on the right side of the transept in the early XVIII century, Pope Clement XI commissioned astronomer, mathematician, archaeologist, historian and philosopher Francesco Bianchini to lay on the floor of the Basilica of the meridian line. This meridian kinda sundial had to perform three tasks. Firstly, the Pope wanted to check on it again accuracy introduction of the Gregorian calendar. Second, he needed a tool to determine the exact date of the Passover. Thirdly, the conceited dad wanted to Rome was the same meridian as the cathedral of Bologna. On this meridian in the late XIX century synchronize watches the city of Rome. The choice fell on this basilica, because being part of the ancient term, she was oriented due south and due to this the midday sun smoothly falls inside of a round hole in the roof. At noon, more precisely at 12.15 (13.15 on summer time), sun ray is directed strictly along the meridian line. The work was commissioned by Pope Clement XI by Jubilee 1700, but took longer and was completed in 1702, about what goes on the plate column: 20. Opening meridian held October 6, 1702. It is a bronze line, mounted in white marble slab, which in turn is framed by a yellow Verona marble. The line runs exactly along the meridian that crosses Rome at a latitude of 15 degrees. The length of the meridian of 45 meters, and it surpassed all available at the time the meridians (artificial). Transparent glass bridge over the meridian 21. Walk along the meridian can not, it is fenced along the entire length. On the line marked variety of labels. 22. Astronomical scheme? 23.Sunbeam is on the meridian line. 24. To the right of the meridian are polychrome inlays depicting the summer and autumn of zodiac signs, left - spring and winter. 25 26. 27. Modern sculpture of the same master, who performed the entrance doors to the basilica. John the Baptist, a Polish sculptor Igor Mitoraj 2006 28. Another entrance to the basilica from the street Via Cernaia. 29. 30.































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