Saturday, October 25, 2014

HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURAL PEARLS

Mausoleum of the Taj Mahal, located in Agra - one of the most recognizable landmarks, not only in India but throughout the world. Structure was built by Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died during childbirth. The Taj Mahal is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world, as well as a symbol of eternal love. In this article I will tell you about the history of this miracle, and also the most interesting facts and events associated with it
The Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal - the most outstanding example of Mogul architecture style that combines elements of Persian, Islamic and Indian architectural styles. In 1983, the Taj Mahal was included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites. This is essentially an integrated complex of structures and the central component of which is the iconic white domed marble mausoleum.Construction began in 1632 and was completed in 1653, and day and night thousands of artisans and craftsmen worked on the creation of this miracle. Worked on the construction board of architects, but mostly was Ustad Ahmad Lahouri start from the beginning, namely, that the emperor spodviglo the construction of such a miracle. In 1631 woe befell the emperor Shah Jahan, the ruler of the Mughal Empire in the prime of her power. His third wife, Mumtaz Mahal died giving birth to their 14th child. A year later, construction began on which Shah Jahan decided, driven by his irrepressible grief and a strong love for his dead wife. The main mausoleum was completed in 1648, and the surrounding buildings and garden were finished five years later. We now turn to a description of each of the structural elements of the complex in detail Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal


Shah JahanMumtaz

India

Shrine - architectural center of the complex of the Taj Mahal. This huge, white marble structure stands on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an arched an aperture entitled large dome. Like most Mughal tombs, basic elements are Persian origin. Inside the mausoleum are two tombs - the Shah and his beloved wife. The height of buildings is 74 meters along the platform, and the corners are 4 minarets, slightly tilted to the side. This was done to ensure that in case of fall, they do not damage the central building Marble dome adorning the tomb is the most exciting part of the Taj Mahal. Its height is 35 meters. Due to the special shape is often called onion dome. The dome shape highlighted by four smaller domed shapes arranged at the corners of the tomb, which repeat the onion shape of the main dome
shrine

Minarets

the main dome
Domes completed gilded figures in the traditional Persian style. The crown of the main dome was originally made of gold, but in the 19th century was replaced by an exact replica of the bronze. Crown entitled month in typical Islamic style, its horns point heavenward
Taj Mahal
Minarets, 40 meters in height each, also exhibit perfect symmetry. They were designed as action - a traditional element of mosques, Islamic calling the faithful to prayer. Each minaret is divided into three equal parts by two working balconies encircling the tower. All decorative design elements are also decorated with gilded minarets
Minarets
Exterior
Design Exterior Taj Mahal certainly be counted among the best examples of world architecture. Since the surface structures on different sites are different, the decoration chosen proportionally. Decorative elements were created using a variety of paints, stucco, stone inlays and carvings. In accordance with the Islamic ban on the use of anthropomorphic forms, the decorative elements are grouped into symbols, abstract forms and floral motifs
exterior
The entire complex as decorative elements are also used passages from the Koran. At the gate of the entrance of the park complex of the Taj Mahal suffered four verse of the 89th sura of the Koran "Dawn", addressed to the human soul: "O thou soul rest! Return to your Lord pleased and earned contentment! Come c My servants. Come into My Paradise! "

The Taj Mahal entrance
Abstract forms are used throughout, especially in the plinth, minarets, gateway, mosque, and even on the surface of the grave. At lower levels plotted realistic marble tomb figures of flowers and vines. All of these images are polished and inlaid stones such as yellow marble, jasper and jade
shapes of flowers
Interior
Interior of the Taj Mahal takes away from the traditional decorative elements. Inside, use a large number of precious and semi-precious stones, and the inner room - perfect octagon, which can be accessed from either side of the structure.However, using only the southern door from the garden.
The interior walls are 25 meters high to the ceiling in the form of the inner dome, decorated in the form of the sun. Eight large arches separated inner space proportional parts. Four central arches form balconies and viewing platforms with viewing window, carved in marble. In addition to these windows, the light comes also through the holes in the corners of the roof.Like the outside, everything inside is decorated with bas-reliefs and inlays Muslim tradition forbids the decoration of graves.Consequently, the body of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan were put in a simple vault, with faces turned towards Mecca. And the foundation, and the coffin itself, carefully inlaid with precious stones. Calligraphic inscriptions on the tombstone praise Mumtaz. Rectangular lozenge on the cover of her tomb supposedly been created in order to it can write. Cenotaph of Shah Jahan Mumtaz is located next to, and is the only asymmetric element in the entire complex, as was completed later. He is more than the coffin of his wife, but is decorated with the same elements on the grave of Shah Jahan applied calligraphic inscription that says: "He went on a journey from this world to the abode of Eternal Night twenty-sixth day of the month of Rajab 1076."
inside the Taj Mahal


Tomb
Gardens of the Taj Mahal
now describe a beautiful garden adjacent to the architectural complex. Mughal Garden prostrated at 300 meters in length.Architects came up with raised pathways that divide each of the 4 parts of the garden beds to 16 in-depth. Water channel in the center of the park is lined with marble, with the location in the midst, between the gate and the tomb reflecting pond. It reflects the image of the tomb. The Emperor was inspired to create a garden, seeing the same luxuries in Persian sheikhs.Garden of the Taj Mahal is unusual in that the main element - the mausoleum, located at the end of the garden. Early sources describe the garden, striking abundance of vegetation, including the exquisite varieties of roses, daffodils, hundreds of fruit trees. But over time, the Mughal empire weakened, and there was nobody to protect gardens. During the reign of the British Empire garden landscaping has been modified, and he began to resemble an ordinary lawn in the center of LondonAdjoining building of the Taj Mahal complex is bounded on three sides by crenellated red sandstone walls, and side extending along the river remains open. Outside the walls of the central structure has several additional mausoleums, where are buried the rest of his wife Jahan, as well as a large tomb of Mumtaz beloved servants. These structures are built of red sandstone, are typical of the tombs of the Mughal era. Nearby is the Music House, which is presently used as a museum. The main gate is a monumental structure built of marble. Its archways repeat the form archways graves, and the arches are decorated with the same elements as the tomb. All items are carefully planned from the geometrical point of view at the far end of the complex are two large buildings of the same red sandstone, located on both sides of the tomb. They are absolutely identical, the building on the left was used as a mosque, and an identical building on the right was built for symmetry, but the ability to use as guest house. The construction of these buildings was completed in 1643. The history of the Taj Mahal Constructio Here I'll talk about the interesting facts of the history of the construction of the complex. The Taj Mahal was built on a plot of land to the south of the city of Agra. Shah Jahan presented the Maharaja Jai Singh large palace in the center of Agra in exchange for the land. On campus were massive earthworks. Huge pit was dug and filled with dirt to reduce the flowability of the soil. The site itself was raised to 50 meters above the river. When the device foundation tombs were dug deep wells, which are filled with gravel for drainage and foundation support. Instead of bamboo forests, workers built a huge brick supports surrounding the tomb - it is much easier for further work. Later, it took years to dismantle these forests - so they were huge. In order to accelerate this process, Shah Jahan allowed farmers to use these bricks for their needs Pyatnadtsatikilometrovaya trench was dug into the ground to be transported to the construction site of marble and other materials. Bundles of 20-30 oxen pulling large blocks on specially constructed wagons. System was built special reservoirs supplying water from the river into the canal and to the most complex. The pedestal and the tomb of the Taj Mahal was built in 12 years, and the remaining part of the complex required 10 years to complete. The total construction cost was approximately 32 million rupees in those days were used for the construction of complex materials from all over Asia. Involved more than a thousand elephants for transportation. Overall, twenty eight types of precious and semi-precious stones were inlaid into the white marble. On the construction were employed 20,000 workers from northern India and most likely they performed the hardest labor in slave-like conditions, as even today people in India are working as slaves - an example, the article " Child labor in India . " Also attracts sculptors from Bukhara, calligraphers from Syria and Persia, stonecutters from Baluchistan, Turkey, Iran, shortly after the completion of the Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan was deposed by his son Aurangzeb and arrested in the Fort of Delhi. After smetri buried him in the mausoleum next to his beloved wife. By the end of the 19th century part of the building fell into disrepair. The Taj Mahal was looted by British soldiers and officials who carved precious materials from the walls of the building. Then Lord Curzon conceived the major reconstruction that ended in 1908. At the same time transformed the famous garden, giving the British style lawns In 1942 the government established the forest in an attempt to disguise the Taj Mahal before the attack pilots of the Luftwaffe and Japanese Air Force. The same action was taken during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 and 1971. This had the effect, and construction remained unharmed Currently complex threatened by pollution. Because of the pollution of the river Yamuna threatened her shallowing and erosion. Within the walls of the tomb began to appear cracks began settling the mausoleum. Because air pollution building began to lose its whiteness, appeared yellow plaque, which falls annually cleaned. The Government of India is taking urgent measures, closing harmful production in Agra, and expanding protected area, but it does not give the effect of the Taj Mahal in India is the main attraction, drawing from 2 to 4 million visitors annually, including more than 200,000 from overseas. Here there is a special entry price for the citizens of India, many times lower than for foreigners. The complex brings a lot of money into the coffers of the state, adding to the budget. Most tourists visit the complex starting in October, to a cooler time of year. Because of the nature protection measures, locked on buses banned here, with special remote parking oversees electric tram, tourists driving up the Taj Mahal on the list of the seven new wonders of the world , from the global vote conducted in 2007. The monument is open to the public from 6:00 to 19:00 on weekdays, except for Friday, when the mosque prayers are held. For safety reasons, carry with them into the territory only allowed water in transparent bottles, small video cameras, cameras, mobile phones and small handbags
the gardens of the Taj Mahal



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Mosque



The Taj Mahal


minaret


Taj Mahal


layout


mausoleum in Agra


Attraction of India


view from side

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