When poets of the past there was a need to glorify the beauty of black eyes, eyebrows or shiny coal black hair, they, without further ado, to compare them with agate.
"My whole world - in one ring agate your curls ..." ( Tajik and Persian poet Abu Abdullah Rudaki )
"I ordered the queen to praise the new word to describe the eyelashes, the eyes on the face agatobrovom, pearls her lips rosy ruby under cover - even break the soft stone hammer lead! ... "
SS Kobuladze. Illustration to the poem by Shota Rustaveli's "The Knight in the Panther's Skin"
"Oh, - said Knight - maiden, whose eyelashes made of agate! What say you to that? whole soul fire arms! You got me back to life, that's for the sorrows of retribution! for you, your slave, I will go to any adversary !. .. "
"We sat down together, and smiled in the kiss of innocent embraced agate agate and merged with ruby ruby. He said: "Denying reason you can look unified, only my sick heart is filled with the spirit of a lion ... "(Shota Rustaveli." Knight in the Panther Skin ")
"Now the eyes of the king (Solomon) were dark as the darkest agate ..." (A.Kuprin. "Shulamith")
But scientists - mineralogists argue that black agate in nature does not happen. And all the literary pearls - the laurels belong to another stone. Mysterious and beautiful jet. Dense, uniform, with a bright "bold" resinous luster, it is well treated, polished, so as ornamental material known from the Neolithic period. And in general, this kind of coal attributable to a group of "brown coal" - grim greetings from a very distant past: education jet associated with the transformation under the influence of metamorphism of wood buried in marine muds of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments.
In ancient times, people adored this funeral stone. Called "black amber", "black jasper." Gagate or gisher - one version from the river Gages in the South - West of Turkey, on the other - from the ancient Armenian word "gisher", which means "night."
Egyptian preened sitting at the vanity of the jet, before the gloomy jetty mirrors. Incidentally, the first eye shadow were directed precisely milled jet.
Greeks like bracelets and rings - charms, the Romans appreciated gems. Usually they cut out a profile or figure of Proserpina (Persephone) - goddess of the underworld, later - a weeping willow and yew - symbols of grief, bindweed, symbolizing the eternal sleep. According to legend, the ring with the jetty insert wore fifth procurator of Judea, Pontius Pilate. In any case, in "Master and Margarita" Bulgakov mentions a ring with a black stone on a long thin finger procurator.
In the East of the jet made amulets, chess pieces, and of course, beads. Especially because gagate pleasant to the touch - it's warm.
With great respect to the jet treated American Indians. He was a symbol of black nadir - the opposite of the solar zenith - one of the six sacred directions.
The Indians called gagate "black turquoise."
The Vikings were not indifferent to the jetty snakes.
In the Middle Ages gagate overgrown pile of tokens and mystical interpretations. It was believed that it helps to find astral protection in the face of deceased relatives, can be used as a talisman, accumulating a dark force and thereby protecting the host from nightmares. But most importantly its purpose - getting a host of fears. Moreover, the most effective "jet black" helps Scorpios. "Shows" he Pisces and Cancers "contraindicated" Taurus and Libra and is indifferent to the rest of the zodiac.
There was also Overeem that gagate also protects from the evil dog, and he later became an indispensable companion rural postmen.
The great scholar Al-Biruni considered him one of the most "efficient" stones - charms, though the successes of jet as a material for jewelry skeptical " "This stone is not one of the precious stones, and beads of it - the most low-grade, so that their worn around the neck and asses ... "
But interest in the gloomy mourning jet as a material for jewelry in waves swept across Western Europe in the 16th - 19th centuries. Reaching the peak of popularity in Germany in the 15 - 16 centuries., In Spain in the 16th - 17th centuries., In France in the 17th - 18th centuries. and England during the 18th - 19th centuries.
In Germany, the tradition of "deference" to the jet can be traced back to the Middle Ages, when it was used for the manufacture of religious items. Special renown Bavarian master processing jet. Here was made of jet sculpture "Lament of the Virgin", stored in the Museum of Gmund.
French borrowed from the Italians love the unusual ladies accessories - zibellino - furry animal skins, decorated with precious and semiprecious stones. A cross between a socket, a nice trinket in his hands and ... bloholovkoy. Eyes and nose zibellino usually made of jet.
Anthea. Painter Parmigianino. 1532 - 1533 period.
In Spain, the Moors in the 10th century has brought into vogue in the charms of the jet in the form of figs (FICO score on - our way, - Slavonic). They were very easy to carry in your pocket.
Velázquez. Portrait of the Infante Felipe Prospero. On the left shoulder of the Infante fig-ward.
It was believed that it protects children from the evil eye and diseases. In addition, the adult owner of this amulet can not be afraid of harassment of creditors, interrogation or women's claims. In the middle of the XIX century. in Spain - a new surge of interest in the jet. There are better tools. They help to create a unique sculpture in height and 180 mm in which gagate combined with ivory.
Still, the greatest popularity gagate reached in Victorian England. Even before the accession to the throne of Victoria it - "in the list of" official mourning stones.
After the death in 1830 of George V the country plunged into mourning, the House of Lords issued a decree ordering the forms and rules of wearing mourning clothes, which were allowed to wear only a decoration of jet.
These rules remain unchanged for the court of Queen Victoria after the death of Prince Albert. In the middle of the XIX century the fashion for curvy women dress with crinolines places special demands on the ornaments. Small products simply invisible in such shapes, decorations should be large and bulky. And easy gagate are irreplaceable.Brooches up to 15 cm in length, beads with a diameter of 4-5 cm, very long earrings ... A jetty ling chain made for the Queen of Bavaria in 1854, reached 1500 mm. wore not only large individual decoration, but also the whole headset .
Beads and chains are often worn with brooches, which usually had a few hidden compartments where placed strands of hair, miniature portraits on enamel, bone, parchment, and later photos of loved ones. Caps - cameos were cut in the form of ancient gods or allegories "Night", "Herculean knot" or motif fede - clenched hands handshake - symbols of eternal love and memory. Jewelry "romantic" Victorian era is also characterized by natural motifs, especially the images of flowers. In mourning jewelry often found carved roses, forget-me, acorns, vine.
Queen Victoria (1819-1901) after Baron Heinrich von Angeli (1840-1925)
In the second half of the 19th century comes "epoch" bracelets. Most diverse decor ...
Exhibits English mourning jewelry, held in 2012 in Novosibirsk.
In the 1870s, they have become so massive and relief that they can be worn over gloves. In Whitby made two types of mourning bracelets - two solid carved parts or individual small segments. One of the favorite motifs - a snake biting its tail, - Ouroboros - a symbol of eternity, often hanging out of its mouth with heart.
In the form of entwined snakes and earrings were often made, especially in the second half of the XIX century, when their sizes decreased slightly.
For a strong half of humanity from jet produced mouthpieces of smoking pipes.
According to his contemporaries, fans of this material which is easy to fine carving, were writers - smokers Ilya Ehrenburg and Georges Simenon.
Zh.Simenon with your favorite handset.
And from his love for the tubes, and possibly the jetty, "contracted" Commissioner Maigret.
B.Tenin as Commissioner Maigret. Still from film "The Visit"
Today, there are fields in England (Yorkshire), Spain (Astaurov), France (Department of Odd), United States (Utah and Colorado), Poland, China, and Vietnam. In Russia - the largest deposits - in Tcheremkhovo coal basin (Irkutsk region) . Siberian gagate began to be mined and processed in the middle of the 19th century. Of the jet was carved a magnificent iconostasis of the Kazan cathedral in Irkutsk (1894) The iconostasis (like the Council), unfortunately, has not been preserved. There are only fragments, transferred to 30 - years of the last century in the exhibition "Museum of Atheism" in Leningrad.
Mined gagate and Ukraine, in the Crimea.
Special conversation about the deposits of Georgia. There are several deposits of coal and lignite, which are associated with jet: Tkvarcheli Tkibuli, Akhaltsikhe, where in a small village in Rustavi Meskhetia may have been born great Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli. (This honor dispute two places in Georgia.)
Need to restore justice. The great poet could not be confused with agate jet. In - First, a good understanding of the stones was laid on a post - as treasurer of Queen Tamara. And, secondly, he probably knew and loved the black stone from childhood. No wonder gagate about 30 times "commemorate" the poem. And the text is gisher - jet."Changeling" stones occurred while translating the works into Russian. Complete translation was 5 most famous - the remarkable Russian poet N. Z. He made a poetic license, "cast a shadow" forgetting the already black jet.
Now gagate has not the luchshte their times. More sophisticated and cheap materials such as obsidian and plastics almost completely replaced its obsolete. Yet he did not disappear for ever, continuing "cling" fashionistas unusual velvety wet depth.
Paying tribute to this remarkable stone time to quote those who are not to be confused with a rival - agate.